Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding "yes!"_____(1)helping you feel close and _____(2)to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a _____(3)of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you _____(4)getting sick this winter.
In a recent study _____(5)over 400 healthy adults, researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs_____(6)the participants' susceptibility to developing the common cold after being_____(7)to the virus. People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come_____(8)with a cold, and the researchers_____(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. _____(11)among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe_____(12).
"Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _____(13)risk for colds that's usually _____(14)with stress," notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie, Hugging " is a marker of intimacy and help _____(15)the feeling that others are there to help_____(16)difficulty."
Some experts_____(17)the stress-reducing, health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin, often called "the bonding hormone"_____(18)it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mothers and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it _____(19)in the brain, where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.
1. A.Besides B.Unlike C.Throughout D.Despite
2. A.equal B.restricted C.connected D.inferior
3. A.view B.host C.lesson D.choice
4. A.avoid B.forget C.recall D.keep
5. A.collecting B.affecting C.guiding D.involving
6. A.on B.in C.at D.of
7. A.devoted B.attracted C.lost D.exposed
8. A.along B.across C.down D.out
9. A.imagined B.denied C.doubted D.calculated
10.A.served B.restored C.explained D.required
11.A.Thus B.Still C.Rather D.Even
12.A.defeats B.symptoms C.errors D.tests
13.A.highlighted B.increased C.controlled D.minimized
14.A.presented B.equipped C.associated D.compared
15.A.assess B.generate C.moderate D.record
16. A.in the name of B.in the form of C.in the face of D.in the way of
17.A.attribute B.commit C.transfer D.return
18.A.unless B.because C.though D.until
19.A.remains B.emerges C.vanishes D.decreases
20.A.experiences B.combines C.justifies D.influences
【解析】根據本句句內邏輯關系，“it turns out that hugs…”說明擁抱還有其他結果。因此，前文的邏輯關系應該為“除此以外”，結合選項，A.Besides(除此之外)最為合適。
【解析】本題實為邏輯關系題。根據句子前后結構“helping you feel close and _____(2)”，我們可以判斷，由于空格處與前面內容通過and連接，說明我們要選擇一個單詞與feel close同義，并且要與后面介詞to 連用。因此，通過對于四個選項含義判斷，C選項有“關聯的”含義最為符合。
【解析】此題為固定搭配。“a host of”表示大量的。其他選項搭配不合理。
【解析】根據題干信息“a warm embrace might even help you _____(4)getting sick this winter.”中，出現“even”，表示“甚至”，說明此句話與上一句話存在遞進的邏輯關系。上一句話的語義表示“擁抱可以帶來大量的好處”，因此，這句話也應該表示擁抱的好處。根據四個選項含義，A.avoid(避免)B.forget(忘記)C.recall(回憶)D.keep(保持)，A選項“避免生病”最符合文意。
【解析】本題為固定搭配。根據句義“examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs_____(6)the participants'…”考查固定搭配“examined the effects…on sth”因此，本題正確選項為A。
【解析】根據句義“common cold after being_____(7)to the virus.”“通常感冒是在。。。細菌之后發生的。”結合選項含義A.devoted(致力于)B.attracted(吸引)C.lost(丟失)D.exposed(暴露于)，D選項“暴露在細菌中…”符合文意。
【解析】本題為固定搭配。A.come along with(和。。。相處的好)B.come across with(償付)C.come down with(得病，感染)D.come out with(出版，提出)，結合語境，根據后面與cold(感冒)搭配，C選項“得感冒”搭配最為合理。
【解析】本題為動詞與賓語從句搭配問題。根據原文“the researchers_____(9)that the stress-reducing effects of hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”動作的主語是“研究人員”，連接后面的賓語從句“擁抱減小壓力的作用”，并且有數據支撐。從選項含義A.imagined(想像)B.denied(否認)C.doubted(懷疑)D.calculated(計算，推測)來看，賓語從句部分應為研究人員計算推測出的結果。因此，選項D符合要求。
【解析】本題為動詞含義考查。根據文章內容，“the stress-reducing effects of hugging _____(10)about 32 percent of that beneficial effect.”本題同樣考查研究人員做出的研究結果，因此，結合選項含義A.served(服務)B.restored(存儲)C.explained(解釋)D.required(要求)，C選項“解釋”符合語境要求。
【解析】形容詞與名詞搭配問題。根據語境“the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe_____(12)”所選詞要與severe構成合理搭配，再結合前文語境是關于對于擁抱實驗的結果。因此，B.symptoms(癥狀)符合語境要求。正確選項為B。
【解析】本題為形容詞修飾。根據原文"Hugging protects people who are under stress from the _____(13)risk for colds that's usually _____(14)with stress,"，需要選擇一個形容詞來修飾risk。在選項中，A.highlighted(突出的)B.increased(增加的)C.controlled(被控制的)D.minimized(最小的)，對比選項含義，B“增加的風險”更符合原文語境。
【解析】此題考查動賓搭配。根據原文“Hugging is a marker of intimacy and help _____(15)the feeling…”，需要選擇一個動詞能夠和后文的“the feeling”搭配。分析選項含義：A.assess(評估)B.generate(產生)C.moderate(緩和)D.record(記錄)，四個選項中，B“generate the feeling”產生感覺搭配最為合理。因此正選為B。
16. A.in the name ofB.in the form ofC.in the face ofD.in the way of
【解析】此題為短語搭配題。分析選項含義A.in the name of(以…為名)B.in the form of(以…的形式)C.in the face of(面對…)D.in the way of(以…的方式)，結合文章語境，應為“面對困難”搭配最為合理。因此，正確選項為C。
【解析】此題為固定搭配題。即：attribute sth to sth .因此正確選項為A
【解析】此題為邏輯關系題。選項含義A.unless(除非)B.because(因為)C.though(雖然)D.until(直到。。。才)。結合原文語境，“often called "the bonding hormone"_____(18)it promotes attachment in relationships,”(經常被稱之為“形成親密關系的荷爾蒙”….它促進了關系的依賴。)從本句來看，前后文屬于因果邏輯關系。因此正確選項為B
【解析】本題為動詞辨析。選項含義為A.remains(仍然)B.emerges(出現)C.vanishes(消失)D.decreases(減少)結合語境信息“But some of it _____(19)in the brain, ”C和D選項跟文章含義相反。而B 選項只表示一種動作。A選項表示它仍然在大腦里存在，最符合文章要求，因此正確選項為A。
where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.
【解析】本題為動詞辨析。選項含義為A.experiences(經歷)B.combines(結合)C.justifies(替某人辯護，證明合理)D.influences(影響)。根據原文語境，“where it _____(20)mood, behavior and physiology.”能夠搭配后面并列的三個賓語“情緒、行為、和生理”，只有D“影響”因此正確選項為D。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.
Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.
Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried. Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago's O'Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious.
Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.
There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved. TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.
It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck's fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.
The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.
21. The crash of EgyptAir Flight 804 is mentioned to
[A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.
[B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide.
[C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports.
[D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection.
22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?
[A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.
[B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.
[C] An increase in the number of travellers.
[D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.
23. The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para. 5) is closet in meaning to
24. One problem with the PreCheck program is
[A] a dramatic reduction of its scale.
[B] its wrongly-directed implementation.
[C] the government’s reluctance to back it.
[D] an unreasonable price for enrollment.
25. Which of the following would be the best for the text?
[A] Less Screening for More Safety
[B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution
[C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines
[D] Underused PreCheck Lanes
21. 答案【A】explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.
解析：本題目為例證題，考察論點與論據。根據題干關鍵詞the crash of Egypt Air Flight 804定位到第二段第二句。例證題中的例子為論據，所要找的答案為論點，而論點在論據之前，因此該題目的答案是第二段的第一句話。二段首句說的是美國人愿意忍受長時間的安全檢查。正確答案A的American’s tolerance是原文Americans are willing to tolerate的原詞復現，current security checks是原文的time-consuming security 的同義轉化。干擾項B的urgency to strengthen security worldwide，原文未提及worldwide，屬于擴大范圍;選項C的major U.S. major airports屬于具體信息的干擾;選項D的privacy 隱私并未提及，是常識性干擾。
22. 答案【C】An increase in the number of travelers.
解析：本題目為原因細節題。根據題干中的long waits at major airports定位到原文第三段的第二句，原文的resulted in 與題干中的contributed to是同義轉化，所以定位內容就是提升的安全措施以及航空旅游的增加。正確答案C的an increase in the number of travelers 是原文a rise in airline travel的同義替換。干擾項A的carry-on bags是在第四段的最后一句出現的，非定位句內容;選項B的TSA efficiency也出現在第四段;選項D的unexpected secret checks未提及。
解析：本題目為詞義句意題，考察上下文邏輯關系。根據題干，定位到第5段第3句，“Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes”，結合下一句中的這樣會saving time for everyone involved，即可以節省時間的安檢，與選項對應就是答案D faster更快。干擾項A更安靜，選項B更便宜，選項C更廣泛，都無關，屬于常識性干擾。
24. 答案【D】an unreasonable price for enrollment.
解析：本題目為具體細節題。根據題干關鍵詞problem with the PreCheck program定位到倒數第二段的第二句話 this price tag has been the PreCheck’s fatal flaw.本句中的代詞this代詞指代本段第一句話，說的是Passengers必須每五年pay 85美元來做background checks。正確答案D中的unreasonable price 是原文的85美元，enrollment就是原文的process background checks。干擾項A其規模的極具下滑未提及，選項C其錯誤的執行屬于過度推理，選項C政府不愿意支持是對原文的曲解。
25. 答案【C】Getting Stuck in Security Lines
“The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos.
At issue is the TMT's planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea's peak rises above the bulk of our planet's dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.
Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.
Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea's fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands' inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.
Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii's shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.
The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.
26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates
[A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.
[B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
[C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.
[D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.
27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to
[A] its geographical features.
[B] its protective surroundings.
[C] its religious implications.
[D] its existing infrastructure.
28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because
[A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.
[B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.
[C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.
[D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.
29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy
[A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.
[B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.
[C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
[D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.
30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of
[A] severe criticism.
[B] passive acceptance.
[C] slight hesitancy.
[D] full approval.
26. 答案【B】the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.
解析：本題目為具體細節題。根據題干中的關鍵詞Queen Liliuokalani的remark定位到第一段的第一句，所indicate的內容是在第一段的第二句話，意思是觀星者是在Hawaiian社會中最受尊重的成員。正確選項B的the importance of astronomy是原文star watchers were among the most esteemed members的總結概括，in ancient Hawaiian society是原文的原詞出現。干擾項A的historical role屬于原文信息的曲解，選項C的regrettable decline未提及，過度推理，選項D不是in her time，是她評論ancient的觀星者。
27. 答案【A】its geographical features.
解析：本題目為具體細節題。根據題干中的大寫字母Mauna Kea，以及關鍵詞ideal astronomical site定位到第二段But后面的內容。But后面說Mauna Kea是世界上最有力量的望遠鏡home。本題目問的是原因，定位到本段最后一句，這里提到Mauna Kea的頂峰高于大部分的濃密大氣層。選項A中的geographical features就是地質特色的意思，屬于同義替換。干擾項B的受保護的周邊環境未提及，是常識性干擾;選項C的宗教暗示根據本段首句worship進行干擾，不在定位句里;選項D現有的基礎設施未提及。
28. 答案【B】it reminds them of a humiliating history.
解析：本題目屬于原因細節題。根據題干關鍵詞the construction of the TMT以及opposed by some locals定位到第四段第二句，這里提到a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation，對曾經主權國家遭占領的痛苦提醒。選項B中的remind 是原文的原詞復現，a humiliating history(令人恥辱的歷史)是對the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation 的同義轉化及總結概括。
29. 答案【C】may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.
解析：本題目屬于細節推斷題。根據題干定位到第5段，關鍵詞progress in today’s astronomy再第五段中沒有。此種情況下，考慮段落中心，即本段的段首，段尾及轉這句。先看首句無答案，看本段尾句提到，或許那就是我們探索星際空間的原因，好像會回答有關我們自己及我們真正祖先的最原始回答。選項C首先may是對原文as if的解讀，uncover 同義替換answer，the origin of Hawaiian culture是原文ourselves and our true ancestral homes的同義轉化。干擾項A的dreams本段中沒有，干擾項B的Hawaiian culture本段有提及，但未指出across the world，干擾項D的soften hostility屬于過度推斷。
30. 答案【D】full approval
解析：第一段第二句 Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today.意思是，可悲的是，夏威夷現在的天文學不太妙。所以，對于現在夏威夷天文學不太妙的處境，作者用了一個sadly來形容，明明白白地表達了他的藍瘦香菇。而夏威夷現在不太妙的處境具體指什么?在下一句清楚地說明了Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos意思是我們要搞個巨牛的望遠鏡，你們居然不同意!所以兩句結合一塊，作者的態度就明白了，他是支持建望遠鏡的。在最后一段的最后一句里也有作者態度的線索 There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.意思是說有人跑到你們那兒去，接受你們的文化遺產，去看星星看月亮，你們為毛不歡迎?咳咳，正經點兒說，就是用了no reason和cannot雙重否定既強調又強調，還帶點兒不可置信地趕腳說夏威夷人應該歡迎每一個到他們那兒去研究天文，并且欣賞他們的文化遺產cultural heritage的每一個人everyone。具體到這篇文章，他們的文化遺產在第五段和第一段都有說，就是天文研究，而每一個人當然應該包括這些想建天文望遠鏡的人。所以作者的態度旗幟鮮明，就是全力支持。所以正確答案是D。
Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country's GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.
The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so well, then why did over 17 million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?
A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvements for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDP, over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded assessment of how countries are performing.
While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn’t the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society, income equality and environment.
This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.
So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental quality or education outcomes – all things that contribute to a person's sense of well-being.
The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.
31. Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he
[A]praised the UK for its GDP.
[B]identified GDP with happiness.
[C]misinterpreted the role of GDP.
[D]had a low opinion of GDP.
32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that
[A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern.
[B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy.
[C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.
[D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP.
33. Which of the following is true about the recent annual study?
[A]It excludes GDP as an indicator.
[B]It is sponsored by 163 countries.
[C]Its criteria are questionable.
[D]Its results are enlightening.
34. In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that
[A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom.
[B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline.
[C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.
[D]it requires caution to handle economic issues.
35. Which of the following is the best for the text?
[A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson
[B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health
[C] Robert F. Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP
[D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being
31. 答案【D】had a low opinion of GDP.
解析：題目問的是Robert被引用是因為什么。根據題目中的人名定位到第一段第一句話Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country's GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.”這句話是說這個人認為一個國家的GDP可以衡量所有東西，除了讓生活有意義的事。這個觀點擺明了Robert對GDP持不欣賞的態度。D選項 a low opinion不高的評價，顯然是對原文的概括性描述，因此選D。
32. 答案【C】GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.
解析：題目明確說了從第二段中找答案。A選項中的economic pattern在原文中沒有直接的表達，但在二段末句···people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?中，原文有提到人們投票脫歐，盡管有很多人警告他們這樣做可能會對國家經濟前景有影響。這說明英國人不怕改變現有經濟狀況，因此與A中的reluctant不情愿不相符。B選項中英國對世界經濟的貢獻問題，在第二段中完全沒提，只有the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western world英國GDP讓西方世界嫉妒的表述。C選項說GDP用來衡量幸福的作用以及被英國人普遍否定了。原文中第二段第二句說it is a flawed concept，認為GDP是有問題的，第三句緊接著說It measures things that do not matter and misses things that do表面GDP其實忽視了很多關鍵的東西，并不能衡量幸福。第四句、第五句拿UK來舉例，說英國GDP很好，但是人們卻要脫歐來改變現狀，暗示人們的生活并不好。整段說明了英國人并不認為他們的高GDP給她們帶來了好的生活，與C選項正好形成正話反說，為正確選項。D選項policymakers在第二段第一句出現，并不存在所謂英國的policymakers，更沒有談過其是否關注GDP。
33. 答案【D】Its results are enlightening.
解析：這題根據題干中的recent annual study定位到第三段第一句A recent annual study ...and ...sheds some light on that question。這句話中的shed light on 短語就是照亮，闡釋的意思，跟D選項中的enlighten啟發是同義轉換，因此為正確答案。
34.答案【C】it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.
解析 ：從題目可知答案來自于最后兩段。第六段第一句···, as a measure, it is no longer enough說明GDP不靠譜，第二句It does not include important factors···that contribute to a person's sense of well-being說明GDP沒有包含所有個人幸福的要素。最后一段最后一句But policymakers who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.也明確說了制定政策的人要關注提高福利，而不是簡單關注GDP數字。這些句子都與C選項factors beyond GDP相符。
35. 答案【A】High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson
解析：第一段第一句就引用名人名言，說GDP是不靠譜的，第二句就拿英國脫歐舉例，說it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to，表明英國脫歐證明他說得有道理，咱們要好好聽聽。第二段繼續說英國GDP高，但是人們要搞事——脫歐，說明人們日子不好過。第三段，第四段開始分析為啥英國人不乖乖聽話過日子，原來是福利在后退but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline。第五段直接說富裕國家要引以為戒：This is a lesson that rich countries can learn。所以整篇文章的主題就是GDP不靠譜，福利不給力不行，英國脫歐是例證。A選項正好包括了這三個要素，High GDP, Inadequate Well-being和a UK lesson因此選A。
In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government.
The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.
Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.
The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”
The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution of bribery. “The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”
But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.
Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society – that all are equal in treatment by government- is undermined. Good government rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.
The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.
36. The underlined sentence(Para.1) most probably shows that the court
[A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.
[B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.
[C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.
[D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.
37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves
[A] concrete returns for gift-givers.
[B] sizable gains in the form of gifts.
[C] leaking secrets intentionally.
[D] breaking contracts officially.
38. The court’s ruling is d on the assumption that public officials are
[A] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
[B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.
[C] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.
[D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.
39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to
[A] awaken the conscience of officials.
[B] guarantee fair play in official access.
[C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.
[D] inspire hopes in average people.
40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is
36. 答案【C】was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.
解析：根據題干中的關鍵詞The underlined sentence (para. 1)，可以快速的回到原文精確定位到第一段的劃線句子，But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government. 聯系文章第一句話，雖然最高法院沒有判定Robert McDonnell受賄罪，但是 holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, 即，在道德上卻對他的行為嗤之以鼻。由此可以鎖定C選項中的 was contemptuous of 法院其實非常輕視Robert McDonnell的行為。文章的D選項中出現 ethics，原文中相同的詞，可能會混淆考生的思維，但是，此句話說的是拒絕從道德的標準評論Robert McDonnell的行為。
37. 答案【B】sizable gains in the form of gifts.
解析：根據題干中給出的信息，可知這一題是對文章第四段理解，由第四段推理出正確答案。從第四段But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”可以知道，對腐敗的定義是，只有受賄者給予了行賄者實際的好處，例如 a contract or regulation, 如果提供的不是具體的好處，僅僅只是：arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event, 那么這種行為就不是受賄。由此可以得出答案為A.
38. 答案【A】allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.
解析：根據題干中的關鍵詞The court’s ruling is don the assumption可以鎖定文章的第五段，“The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”可以知道，法院的裁定是建立聽取其選民的意見，按照他們的利益行事。所以原文中的constituents對應A選項的 supporters，支持者。所以答案選擇A
39. 答案【B】guarantee fair play in official access.
解析：根據題干中的關鍵詞Well-enforced laws in government transparency可以鎖定文章的第六段This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.但是從這句話中找不到所需的信息，從this type of可以知道這句話與前面的句子聯系緊密，因而可以追溯到這一段的第一句話，But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. 執法力度需要加強市民及其當選代表，而不是法院獲得接近政府的平等的機會。equality與B選項的fair play相對應，因此選B.
解析：本題考察的是態度題，從文中最后一句話: The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.可以看出作者認為法院的裁定是進步的： a step forward，，因此可以看出作者對此的態度是supportive. sarcastic: 尖酸的，挖苦的;tolerant：寬容的，容忍的;skeptical：懷疑的。
In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
[A]The first published sketch, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" brought tears to Dickens's eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name "Boz" in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.
[B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens's fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure.
[C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour's pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837.
[D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.
[E]Soon after his father's release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter's eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.
[F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England's southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office -a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken's mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken's birth, his mother's father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family's increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren's Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as "the young gentleman." His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father's imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken's greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.
[G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan's progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens' as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.
【解析】排序題關鍵是收尾相接，要緊緊牢記大綱的考點“一致性和銜接性”。也就是要想選出下一題首先要確定上段的尾句在說什么，做到上一段的尾句和要選擇的段落首句銜接。41題取決于給出的首段D選線。D選項起到統領全文的作用，主要對狄更斯進以及他的作品進行了總體的評價和概括：狄更斯對于大多數人來說是英國知名的、偉大的小說家，他是一名道德家、諷刺家以及社會先驅者，他的小說情節曲折、人物性格鮮明，捕捉到了英國社會的全景。那么對于這類人物自傳式的文章，后面會先減少其生平。縱觀各選項，不難發現F選項首句出現Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England's southern coast，各位考生要把握was born出生這個關鍵詞。因此，41題選擇F選項。
【解析】要想做出42題，關鍵是理解41題F選項，尤其是F選項的后面一部分。我們認真研讀F選項的后半段一直在介紹狄更斯童年經歷中他父親所起到的作用，介紹他的父親由于債務被關進了監獄，這給狄更斯帶了羞恥感以及后面他在黑工廠做工的經歷對他性格的行程都起到了很大的作用。于是我們瀏覽各選項首句，發現E選項開頭Soon after his father's release from prison，出現了很關鍵的線索詞，即他的父親被釋放后，因此E可以接在4題F選項的后面。所以，42題選擇E選項。
【解析】43題取決于42題E選型的尾句，E選項的前半句說狄更斯找到了一份文職的工作，最后一句是At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter's eye for transcribing the life around him, especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines，大概意思說他開始用語言記錄周圍的人和生活，尤其是幽默的和奇怪的，形成了一些雜志magazine 中基本的素材梗概sketches，瀏覽各選項的首句，很容易發現A選項的首句The first published sketch, "A Dinner at Polar Walk" brought tears to Dickens's eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine From then on his sketches,考生會發現復現詞magazine 和sketches。因此，42題選擇A選項。
【解析】44題取決于43題A選項的尾句，A選項的尾句說道狄更斯用"Boz"這個筆名開始發表文章，并且小有名氣，瀏覽各選項首句，會發現C選項的首句出現了Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared，這里我們會發現他的筆名，原詞復現，因此，44題選擇C選項。
Part C Translation
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
Section Ⅳ Writing
51.【題干】direction: You are to write an email to James Cook, a newly-arrived Australia professor, recommending some tourist attractions in your city .Please give reason for your recommendation.
You should write nearly on the answer sheet.
Dot not sign your own name at the end of the email .use "Li Ming" instead.
Do not write the address. (10 points)
Dear Prof. James Cook,
Welcome to China. I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot—Harbin, which is an old northern city of China.
I think you must like it for the reasons as follows. To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on. In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street. Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China.
Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you. I am sure you will enjoy it. Best wishes for you!
今年英語一的小作文不出預料，再一次考查到了推薦信。在英語一的考試當中，推薦信已經考查過兩年了。例如我們英語一在2011年就考查過向你的朋友推薦一部電影。具體題目要求是Write a letter to a friend of yours to1) recommend one of your favorite movies and;2) give reasons for your recommendation. 2015年考察的是you are going to hold a club reading session. Write an email of about 100 words recommending a book to the club members.You should state reasons for your recommendation. 而今年的作文題目要求給新來的澳大利亞國籍教授James Cook介紹你城市的tourist attraction。因此，考生不用驚慌只要把2011年或2015年的小作文，主要是推薦原因部分，稍作修改即可成文。這就啟發我們2018屆的同學們要高度重視歷年真題，因為考過的話題或是書信類型會反復考查。
稱呼： Dear Prof. James Cook, 注意稱呼中，Prof后面的句點不能丟，稱呼最后的逗號號不可丟，也不能寫成冒號。當然如果稱呼不寫Prof. 寫成Mr. James Cook 也是可以的。
第一段：寫作內容需涵蓋兩點：1：歡迎Cook 教授來中國;2：寫信目的，表明推薦。 用到了這樣的表達Welcome to China. I know you love traveling, so I’m writing this letter to recommend to you one of my favorite scenic spot- Harbin, which is an old northern city of China.
第二段： 寫作內容為推薦原因。可以從三個角度來考慮：美景、美食和熱情的人們。用到了這樣的表達：I think you must like it for the reasons as follows. To begin with, there are an amount of beautiful scenic spots, such as the Ice and Snow Kingdom in winter, the Sun island, the Central Street and so on. In addition, you could taste a great number of snacks on the average street. Last but not least, the people of Harbin are overwhelmingly hospitable and enthusiastic, which is famous all over China.
第三段：再次強調寫信目的。Owing to the reasons discussed above, I won’t hesitate to recommend this scenic spot to you. I am sure you will enjoy it. 最后，表達祝福 Best wishes for you!
落款： Yours sincerely, 特別提醒sincerely后面逗號不能丟;
簽名： Li Ming特別注意 Ming 后面一定不能出現句點。 落款和前面左、右對齊都可
52.【題干】Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In your essay, you should
1) describe the pictures briefly.
2) interrupt the meaning, and
3) give your comments
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
As is symbolically mirrored in the caricatures, there emerge two circumstances, carrying sharp contrast implications. In the first cartoon, a fashionable boy, lying in his sling chair comfortably, is looking at his whole shelf of books and saying, “I possess a multitude of books”. On the contrary, the second portrayal demonstrates an industrious student who is sitting in front of the desk and makes a realistic plan that he would like to finish reading 20 books in total within a year.
The author of the cartoon invites us to focus on a truth that endless plans paralyze actions. There are simply no great success and achievements in the world that are not achieved through hard work and diligence. Similarly, a dream can be realized when you decide to work for it and persist continuously. Everyone desires to succeed, but not all his dreams can come true until he works hard to implement his plans. People give up their dreams for this or that reason. Those whose dreams become true have at least one thing in common, that is, they always hold fast to their dreams and always keep their feet on the ground. Just around us, for instance, the athletes who gain the gold medals, the artists who are prevalent with the public, and even the students who enter the university after years of hard study and preparation, are all dream-holders.
Accordingly, to succeed, we need to spare no efforts and hold fast to your dreams just as our nation sticks to our Chinese Dream. The path to dreams may not be smooth and wide, and even some sacrifices are needed, but hold on to the end, you will find there is no greater happiness than making your dream come true.
我們簡單來看看如何審這兩副圖，左邊的圖片中，一個學生坐在躺椅里悠哉悠哉，看著自己有許多書卻沒說讀上哪怕一本;右邊的圖片中，一位勤奮的學生拿著一本書仔細讀著，并且很現實地計劃著一年爭取讀完20本書。圖表描述參考如下：As is symbolically mirrored in the caricatures, there emerge two circumstances, carrying sharp contrast implications. In the first cartoon, a fashionable boy , lying in his sling chair comfortably, is looking at his whole shelf of books and says, “I possess a multitude of books”. On the contrary, the second portrayal demonstrates an industrious student who is sitting in front of the desk and makes a realistic plan that he would like to finish reading 20 books in total within a year.
第二段可以從兩方面來論證，一方面強調如果只有想法而不行動是不利于理想的實現，另一方面從正面論證腳踏實地一步一步完成理想的道理。參考如下：The author of the cartoon invites us to focus on a truth that endless plans paralyze actions. There are simply no great success and achievements in the world that are not achieved through hard work and diligence. Similarly, a dream can be realized when you decide to work for it and persist continuously. Everyone desires to succeed, but not all his dreams can come true until he works hard to implement his plans. People give up their dreams for this or that reason. Those whose dreams become true have at least one thing in common, that is, they always hold fast to their dreams and always keep their feet on the ground. Just around us, for instance, the athletes who gain the gold medals, the artists who are prevalent with the public, and even the students who enter the university after years of hard study and preparation, are all dream-holders。.
第三段給出結論，簡單提兩條建議即可。比如：Accordingly, to succeed, we need to spare no efforts and hold fast to your dreams just as our nation sticks to our Chinese Dream. The path to dreams may not be smooth and wide, and even some sacrifices are needed, but hold on to the end,you will find there is no greater happiness than making your dream come true.