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2016考研英語一真題及答案解析(跨考版)

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  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1__those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__ a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3__the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may take the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. __4__, a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5__ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

  The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Par--ts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting,__9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and __10__a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__. Newlyweds traditionally move in with the wife's parents and may__12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

  Divorce is legal and easy to __14__, but not common. Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. The divorced male doesn't have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__the woman must wait ten months.

  1. A. by way of B. with regard to C. on behalf of D. as well as

  2. A. decide on B. provide for C. compete with D. adapt to

  3. A. close B. arrange C. renew D. postpone

  4. A. In theory B. Above all C. In time D. For example

  5. A. Unless B. Less C. After D. Although

  6. A. into B. within C. from D. through

  7. A. or B. since C. but D. so

  8. A. test B. copy C. recite D. create

  9. A. folding B. piling C. wrapping D. tying

  10. A. passing B. lighting C. hiding D. serving

  11. A. association B. meeting C. collection D. union

  12. A. deal B. part C. grow D. live

  13. A. whereas B. until C. for D. if

  14. A. avoid B. follow C. challenge D. obtain

  15. A. isolated B. persuaded C. viewed D. exposed

  16. A. wherever B. whatever C. whenever D. however

  17. A. changed B. brought C. shaped D. pushed

  18. A. invested B. divided C. donated D. withdrawn

  19. A. warms B. clears C. shows D. breaks

  20. A. while B. so that C. once D. in that

  1. [標準答案] [D]as well as

  [考點分析] 本題考察邏輯關系

  [選項分析] 因為考察邏輯關系,所以需要我們先對填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:文章身處大環境not only…..but also之中,這是一個明顯的并列關系,表示“不僅……而且……”該空與前一句“his parents and his friends”也是并列關系,表示“與他本人以及伴侶的父母朋友相關” 所以答案只能是D. as well as.

  A. by way of通過 B. with regard to 關于 C. on behalf of 代表

  2. [標準答案] [A] decide on

  [考點分析] 上下文語義

  [選項分析] 根據該句的主語a young man與賓語a likely spouse的關系,答案只能是A. decide on 決定。表示自己決定自己的對象。B. provide for 為……提供準備 C. compete with與……競爭 D. adapt to適用

  3. [標準答案] [B]arrange

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞辨析

  [選項分析] 該句意思為,他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母_____相關事務。四個選項中,A. close 關閉 C renew 更新;恢復 D postpone“推遲”,語義不正確,只有B arrange安排是符合語境。

  4. [標準答案] [A]In theory

  [考點分析] 上下文語義

  [選項分析]邏輯判斷題。主要是看前后兩句的含義,前面是說“他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母安排相關事務,或者幾乎不參與,完全讓父母選擇自己的對象。” 空格后面說“女方可以拒絕她父母所選擇的對象。”這兩句之間沒有舉例說明的關系,且有一個may,更證明A. In theory的正確性。而其他選項 B. Above all最重要的是, C. In time 準時 D. For example舉例,均不符合題意。

  5. [標準答案] [C]After

  [考點分析] 上下文語義

  [選項分析]根據下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other……”知道,只有對象選擇好后,父母才會去調查研究對方的背景。所以只有after才對。其他選項A. Unless 除非,否則 B. Lest 以免,唯恐 D. Although 盡管 都不符合題意。

  6.[標準答案] [A]into

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及介詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] 這里主要是看marry與相關介詞的固定搭配。這里marry into就是指嫁到,而其他選項均沒有這層含義。

  7. [標準答案] [C]but

  [考點分析] 邏輯關系題

  [選項分析]根據上文,說傳統的婚禮時間跨度很長,但是到了1980s, 婚禮只持續一天半。所以與前文發生轉變。因此要選擇but轉折關系。

  8. [標準答案] [C]recite

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析]空格處需要填一個動詞,和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配,C選項recite 為背誦的意思,與所給短語搭配最為合理,譯為“為祈禱者做祈福”。

  9. [標準答案] [D]tying

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] 本題需要根據上下文語義分析,空格處需要搭配后文“棉花線頭”,縱觀四個選項[A]折疊

  [B]堆積 [C]包裹 [D]系上,根據選項含義,只有D和后文的“棉花線頭”搭配最為合理。

  10.[標準答案] [A]passing

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] 本題根據選項[A]傳遞[B]點亮 [C]隱藏 [D]服務,原文空格需要填寫一個動詞與后文“around a circle”來搭配,譯為“將蠟燭傳一圈”,故[A]傳遞為正確選項。

  11.[標準答案] [D]union

  [考點分析] 名詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] 本題根據選項[A]協會,社團[B]會議,會面 [C]集合 [D]結合。本句語義為“這些受尊敬的夫妻祈禱…”根據語境,結婚是一種夫妻二人的結合,因此,選項[D]結合更符合語境。

  12. [標準答案] [D]live

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] 本題比較簡單。根據語義“根據傳統,新婚夫婦要搬到妻子父母家,與父母____一年”根據語境,應為[D]居住為最佳答案。

  13.[標準答案] [B]until

  [考點分析] 時間邏輯關系

  [選項分析] 根據原文,“_____他們在附近建造一棟新房子” [A]然而[B]直到 [C]為 [D]如果 結合語境,[B]直到最符合原文語境,搭配最為合理。

  14.[標準答案] [D]obtain

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common.該句句意為離婚是合法的,且相對容易____. A.avoid 避免B.follow 跟隨C.chanllenge挑戰,質疑D.obtain獲得。這里出現and,所以對于離婚這件事不可能是避免或是挑戰,但是跟隨和離婚之間語義不符,但是獲得離婚(的批準)是可以的。選D.

  15. [標準答案] [D] viewed

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞詞義辨析

  [選項分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval.離婚的人…一些不贊同。在段首,已經注明離婚是合法的且相對容易得到批準,但是不常見。這說明離婚在現實中肯定是不太受到人們的歡迎的。而接下來這句就說離婚的人…一些不贊同。再看選項:A.isolated孤立 B.persuaded勸說C.viewed看做 D. exposed接觸,受到…的影響 C選項固定搭配被認為,放進。

  16. [標準答案] [B]whatever

  [考點分析] 語法

  [選項分析Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, 17個空對應的都是動詞,所以該句意思為:夫婦雙方保有…財產,這個財產是他或她…(動詞)進婚姻的。 結合選項A whenever“無論何地;任何(地方)=any place where(定從)”。B whatever“無論什么;任何(東西)=anything that/any+N that”。C whenever無論何時;任何(時間=any time when)D however 無論如何;無論多么 。根據語義,這里應該不是讓步的關系,而且填的這個詞還要能修飾property。因此,選擇B =retains any property that he or she ….

  17. [標準答案] [B]brought

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞義辨析

  [選項分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage,結合選項A changed“改變”。B brought “帶來”。C shaped“形成” D pushed“推,逼迫”。結合語境只有B符合,把財產帶入婚姻。

  18. [標準答案] [B]divided

  [考點分析] 上下文語義及動詞義辨析

  [選項分析] …and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally.結合選項A invested投資.[B]divided平分 [C] donated 捐贈[D]withdrawn撤出,提取。根據語義應該是共同財產被(夫妻雙方)平分。

  19. [標準答案] [C]shows

  [考點分析] 動詞固定搭配

  [選項分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 該句語義為離過婚的人或許會再婚,但是性別偏見…。結合選項A. warm(up)加熱 B.clear(up) 變晴C.show (up) 顯現D.break(up)分裂,分開;,顯然C是正確選項。

  20. [標準答案] [A]while

  [選項分析] 上下文語義

  [考點分析] 很明顯的兩類人的對比比較關系。只能選擇while.

  【真題翻譯】在柬埔寨,伴侶的選擇對于年輕男性來說是一個復雜的問題。這不僅與他本人以及未來伴侶的父母朋友相關,而且與媒婆也有著千絲萬縷的關系。他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母安排相關事務,或者幾乎不參與,完全讓父母選擇自己的對象。理論上來說,女方可以拒絕她父母所選擇的對象。在選好自己的對象后,每個家庭都能會去調查對方家庭來確保他們的孩子嫁到好人家。

  傳統的婚禮是一段漫長,多姿多彩的過程。從前會持續三天,但是到了20世紀80年代,一般會持續一天半。佛教徒通常會做簡短誦經,并為新人祈福。儀式通常包括剪發,在新郎新娘的胳膊上系上浸滿圣水的棉繩,在幸福的、受人尊敬的夫婦中傳遞蠟燭來祈禱新人的結合。通常情況下,新婚夫婦會到妻子父母家里住一年,直到他們在附近建一棟新房子為止。

  離婚是合法的,而且很容易獲得批準,但是在實際中這種情況并不常見。離過婚的男女會受到一些人的詬病。夫婦雙方在離婚后可保有他或她婚前帶來的財產,而且可平分婚后共同取得的財產。離過婚的人或許會再婚,但是性別偏見還是很明顯。比如,離過婚的男性再婚前不需要一段等待期而女性則需要等待十個月。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

  The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

  Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

  The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

  The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

  The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

  In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.

  Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

  21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

  [A] Physical beauty would be redefined.

  [B] New runways would be constructed.

  [C] Websites about dieting would thrive.

  [D] The fashion industry would decline.

  22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____

  [A] heightening the value of.

  [B] indicating the state of.

  [C] losing faith in.

  [D] doing harm to.

  23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

  [A] The French measures have already failed.

  [B] New standards are being set in Denmark.

  [C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.

  [D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.

  24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____

  [A] setting a high age threshold for models.

  [B] caring too much about models’ character.

  [C] showing little concern for health factors.

  [D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.

  25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?

  [A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry

  [B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty

  [C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France

  [D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  21 答案 A Physical beauty would be redefined

  解析:這是一道細節題,根據France定位到第一段第一句,主干成分為France has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty。此外第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be define by looks…故而A physical beauty would be redefined為同義替換,即為正確答案。

  22 答案 D doing harm to

  解析:此題為詞義題。定位到第二段第二句They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 根據end up 可以看出beauty should not be defined by looks 和that end up impinging on health為順承關系,所以“改變人們對美不僅僅是外表的定義”可以結束對健康的危害。故而可以推知doing harm to是正確答案。

  23 答案 B New Standards are being set in Denmark

  解析:此題是正誤判斷題。根據第五段第二句話 In Denmark,…it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion…可知B選項 New standards are being set in Denmark是其同義替換。

  24 答案 C showing little concern for health factors

  解析:細節題。一個設計師很可能因為什么原因被CFW拒絕,根據關鍵詞可回到文中定位至倒數第二段,首句說丹麥的時尚界就有關模特的年齡,健康及其他特性的內容達成一致意見,切一項新法案也明確規定,他們已經意識到時尚界對于人們尤其是年輕人的身體健康所帶來的影響,并且該對此負責,接著下一句就說,這一法規的執行方式就是拒絕一些設計師,因為可以推斷設計師很可能因為不考慮身體健康因素而被CFW拒絕。

  25 答案 D A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals

  解析:主旨題。本文從首段就開始闡述法國的觀點,即時尚界已經失去了定義女性身體之美的權利,且議會也禁止網站通過宣傳過度節食來強調過度消瘦。二段繼續說明美麗不能只看外表更不能以犧牲健康為代價。三段說女性不該讓他人來評判自己的美麗。以及后面的段落中也一直在不斷說明一點,即健康很重要,不能只看外表。所以文章最佳標題應該是D,對時尚界完美身材的質疑。

  Text 2

  For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.

  A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.

  At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.

  The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.

  The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?

  Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.

  26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside

  [A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.

  [B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.

  [C] is fully backed by the royal family.

  [D] is not well reflected in politics.

  27. According to Paragraph 2, the achievements of the National Trust are now being

  [A] gradually destroyed.

  [B] effectively reinforced..

  [C] properly protected.

  [D] largely overshadowed.

  28. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?

  [A] Labour is under attack for opposing development

  [B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.

  [C] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.

  [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.

  29. The author holds that George Osborne’s preference

  [A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.

  [B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.

  [C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.

  [D] highlights his firm stand i against lobby Pressure.

  30. In the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of

  [A] the size of population in Britain.

  [B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.

  [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.

  [D]the political life in today’s Britain.

  26 答案 D is not well reflected in politics

  解析:細節題。精讀題干,劃出關鍵詞。根據題干回到原文精確定位到首段最后一句,該句中的polls民意調查對應題干中的public sentiment,定位答案處為“this has limited political support”,意思為這在政治支持方面是有限的。與D選項“在政治上沒有得到很好的反響”為同義替換。

  27 答案 D largely overshadowed

  解析:細節題。根據題干,題干中出現大寫the National Trust,定位到第二段首句the National Trust該句。二段首句只是對Hill的該項目做介紹,需向后看影響。往下可以讀到Hill’s pressure這句,寫到“Hill的項目創造出國家公園和綠地。他們不再制造鄉村了,而且每年鋼筋混凝土消耗的鄉村越來越多。鄉村需要持久的保護”。對應選項,該項目的成就很大程度上被奪取了光輝。

  28 答案 A Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation

  解析:推斷題。題干問的是從第三段能推出什么,考察的是相應段落的段落中心。觀察選項不難發現,選項中都是大寫的Ukip,The Conservatives,The Liberal Democrats,Labour。可根據選項中的大寫回段落中尋找,發現Ukip所在的定位句為Only的倒裝強調句(倒裝強調句往往為答案所在處)。該句子意思是:只有Ukip意識到其機會,并支持這些人。和選項A對應一下,Ukip可能能從其對農村保護的支持中獲得好處,是同義替換。

  29 答案 B Shows his disregard for the character of rural areas

  解析:細節題 問的是作者對于奧斯本的偏好(觀點)的具體看法。根據關鍵詞奧斯本定位至第五段,因為問的是作者對于奧斯本觀點的看法,所以只需要看在奧斯本的觀點之后作者的表達內容,第五段倒數兩句話就是作者表達自己觀點的地方,即“我們沒有破壞城市中受到保護的地方”,“你們為什么要破壞鄉村的呢?”這就說明奧斯本一方的觀點是要破壞鄉村環境。所以可得出答案是奧斯本想法表明了他對于鄉村人們的忽視。

  30 答案 C the-town-and-country planning in Britain

  解析:根據題干定位到最后一段,問的是作者欣賞贊同什么,作者的觀點即是文章末段的段落中心,可定位到末段末句。末句指出,避免this會將左右黨派聯系起來,this代詞指代指代上句中所提到的內容。Should即作者贊同的地方,也就是作者贊同的是城鄉結合。

  TEXT3

  “There is on and only one social responsibility of business,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Friedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.

  The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.

  Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. Al recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.

  The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties,. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firm’s political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.

  In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern , such as child labour, or increasing corporate giving byabout20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for bribing foreign officials”, says one researcher.

  Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect, rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them less costly punishment.

  31.The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with

  【A】tolerance.

  【B】skepticism.

  【C】uncertainty.

  【D】approval.

  32.According to Paragraph 2,CSR helps a company by

  【A】winning trust from consumers.

  【B】guarding it against malpractices.

  【C】protecting it from being defamed.

  【D】raising the quality of its products.

  33. The expression “more lenient ”(line 2,para.4)is closest in meaning to

  【A】more effective

  【B】less controversial

  【C】less severe

  【D】more lasting

  34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR regard

  【A】has an impact on their decision

  【B】comes across as reliable evidence

  【C】increases the chance of being penalized

  【D】constitutes part of the investigation

  35.Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?

  【A】 Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.

  【B】 The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.

  【C】 Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.

  【D】 It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.

  31 答案 B Skepticism

  解析:作者觀點態度題。題干問的是作者對有關CSR方面Milton Friedman的說法是什么態度。根據大寫Milton Friedman這個人定位到定位到首段首句。注意題干問的是作者的看法,因此定位到后一句but轉折處。轉折處的主題句式“things may not absolutely clear-cut”,作者持的是否定態度,選擇答案B。C選項是作者態度不明確,不能選擇。

  32 答案 A winning trust from consumers

  解析:根據題干找到第二段.根據第二段內容,CSR could add value to their business in three ways. 從而定位下面三點。First后面出現了high quality,但是它是在從句中,從句修飾"signal",而本句謂語動詞是take,與D中 raising 并不是同義詞,故排除。Second,和third 都與消費者購買心態有關,和A選項 winning trust from consumers 相對應。而B,C選項的malpractices和defamed在原文中并未出現,且沒有同義詞,故排除。

  33 答案 C less severe

  解析:根據題干找到第四段對應處。可見題干的 more lenient 是作為修飾 penalties(懲罰) 的,故推測本句在討論 CSR 和 penalties 有什么聯系。而本段與懲罰相關的詞只有最后一個詞 fines(罰金),修飾它的形容詞是lower, 故可推測 more lenient 與降低懲罰有關,只有C選項滿足。

  34 答案 A has an impact on their decision

  解析:題干中問的是 CSR record 與 prosecutors evaluate a case 的關系,根據題干內容到對應點:第五段第一句。本句說,...they do seem to be influenced by a company's recore in CSR.這里的 be influenced 與A選項 has an impact 對應,故選A. 而B選項中的 reliable evidence, C 選項中的 the chance of being penalized 在原文中沒有體現。D選項中的 investigation 與題干中的 When prosecutors evaluate a case 明顯對應不上,故不予考慮。

  35 答案 B The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown

  解析:該題是一道判斷題,題干問的是有關CSR哪個是對的。先根據CSR回到最后一段,定位到末段首句。首句提到“研究人員承認到其研究沒有回答如下問題:公司應該在CSR方面花費多少錢”。選項B的意思是公司在其方面的花費是未知的,屬于原文的同義替換。

  Text 4

  There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future”, the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.

  Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper — printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print away. And though print ad sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.

  Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Joah Peretti.

  Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about doing it the right way.” Fighting out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense of them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”

  Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”

  The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you’re overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,”Peretti said. “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.”In other words, if you’re going to make a print product ,make it for the people who are already obsessed with it. Which way be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.

  “It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,”Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive. ”

  36.The New York Times is considering ending its print edition partly due to

  [A]the pressure from its investors.

  [B]the complaints from its readers.

  [C]the high cost of operation.

  [D]the increasing online ad sales.

  37. Peretti suggests that, in face of the present situation, the Times should

  [A]make strategic adjustments

  [B]end the print edition for good.

  [C]seek new sources of readership.

  [D]aim for efficient management.

  38. It can be inferred form Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”

  [A]will have the cost of printing reduced.

  [B]is meant for the most loyal customers.

  [C]helps restore the glory of former times.

  [D]expands the popularity of the paper.

  39. Peretti believes that, in a changing world,

  [A]traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.

  [B]aggressiveness better meets challenges.

  [C]cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.

  [D]legacy businesses are becoming outdated.

  40. Which of the following would be the best title of the text?

  [A]Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good.

  [B]Keep Your Newspapers Forever in Fashion.

  [C]Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand.

  [D]Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once.

  36 答案 C the high cost of operation

  解析:因果細節題,問的是紐約時報考慮停止紙質版新聞印刷出版的原因是什么。文章首段首句即是此內容的同義表達,二段解釋具體原因,二段二句內容 The infrastructure isn't just expensive; it's excessive at a time when online-only competitors don't have the same set of financial constraints.意思是維持紙質印刷的基礎設施建設不僅僅是貴,是相當貴, 而他們的競爭對手卻沒有這樣的經濟上的限制。

  37 答案 A make strategic adjustments

  解析:細節題,問的是面對目前的形勢,Peretti建議時代雜志怎么做,根據關鍵詞Peretti回文定位至第四段,首句內容是Peretti說時代雜志不該浪費時間去想著如何停止紙質印刷,而應該找到一種正確的方法去解決這件事。接著二句往后在具體說明該如何正確解決目前的問題。由此推出答案是A 做出策略上的調整。

  38 答案 B is meant for the most loyal customers

  解析:推斷題與詞匯題的結合,要根據上下文來做出選擇。首先定位在第五段最后一句:I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product. 不僅要提高價格還要將它變為一種可以傳承的產物。單單這一句不足以做出選擇。需要繼續往下看在第六段中有沒有對于這個詞的解釋之類的。第六段開頭提到了他認為most consumer 依舊堅持去相信他們認為好的東西,喜歡的,相信的東西。如果可以每年增加一些比例,那么依舊是可以創收的。長篇大段的敘述可以讓大家明白這個詞一定跟consumer有關。最為關鍵的是:緊接著出現了 in other world, 重述上文,不過卻簡潔的總結了前文。如果我們要做這些print product, 那就選擇那些已經癡迷于他們的人吧。(那么對于他們來講就是一件可以傳承的東西了,以前喜歡,會依舊喜歡下去)。所以這句為做題的關鍵,對應同義替換,選擇B。

  A選項中的降低成本沒有在文中相應位置涉及到。 C重建以往的關榮,與消費者關系不大 D擴大受歡迎程度,范圍過大。

  39 答案 B aggressiveness better meets challenges

  解析:觀點態度題。偏細節題。定位Peretti在文中的觀點,首次出現在第三段 overhead…but rushing to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake.并且一直貫穿于下文。我們首先從選項來看。A 中…can stay unaffected 過于絕對,不選。D 選項中legacy business 不是文中的討論話題,所以可以直接排除。而C選項中謹慎可以促進問題的解決,在perreti的觀點中根本沒有體現,相反他建議要有所改變,并且要找對方式,言下之意就是大膽去面對挑戰。所以最終確定是B。

  40 答案 A Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good

  解析:主旨題。出現在最后一道題目中,全文共有7段,根據上面的細節題目,大致可以確定本文的中心詞為“print newspaper”B,C 兩個選項中的newspaper 都屬于范圍過大,是主旨題的典型錯誤選項,而D選項中出現的online newspaper 只是文中print newspaper時提到的一個面臨的 一個挑戰,不足以引領全文,并且all at once, 是“立刻,馬上”之意,與原文的觀點也有出入,最終確定選A。

  Part B

  Directions:

  In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  [A]Create a new image of yourself

  [B]Decide if the time is right

  [C]Have confidence in yourself

  [D]Understand the context

  [E]Work with professionals

  [F]Know your goals

  [G]Make it efficient

  No matter how formal or informa the work environment,the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in first impressions. According to research from Princeton University,people assess your competence,trustworthiness,and likeability in just a tenth of a second,solely based on the way you look.

  The difference between today’s workplace and the“dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems, face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.

  So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhance our goals? Here are some tips;

  41.

  As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions---when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you.Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.

  42. Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more“SoHo”.(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)

  43.

  Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What converys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand the cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.

  44.

  Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like J.Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.

  45.

  The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time passing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.

  41. B Decide if the time is right

  解析:此段第一句話主句里面說“在過渡的階段提升自我形象尤其有用”。第二句和第三、四句分別展開說明,第二句表明:如果你處在變動的時期或者感覺需要變動,那么可能這可能是一個好的時機。 相反,第三、四句話表示:如果不確定的話,就需要得到別人的反饋了。也許無需提升。故整段的意思是說要先確定是否現在是提升自我形象的正確時機。故答案為C選項。

  42. F Know your goals

  解析:此段中心句即第一句話,標明“要清楚你想要的結果或影響”。其實就是你想要的目標。緊接著開始解釋,提到比如,你是否想要更新你的形象?那么,對于一個人來講,這個目標可能是要被認真對待或者要加強專業的形象。對于其他人,這個目標可能是要被看作可以觸摸到的,或者是現代的,或者是時尚的。對于那些要從金融轉到廣告的,他們可能得看起來更“SOHO”.所以,整段都在講目標。而選項F中的”goal”形成復現。故為答案。

  43. D Understand the context

  解析:復現原則,文章多次重復environment, understand the context 就是要理解你的工作處境。

  44. E Work with professionals

  解析:復現原則,文章多次重復professional, work with,就是要與專業人士一起工作。

  45. G Make it efficient

  解析:此段第二句句首出現instead, 故為轉折句。所以從此句獲得中心內容。該句講的是“最好是將形象升級用做減少做決定的機會。”緊接著提到“選取一套標準的工作服或幾個其他的選擇。把衣服一下子都買了,而不是一個人購買,或者一次只買一件”。這些提到的都是要有效率。故選G。

  Part C

  Translation

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)

  Within the span of a hundred years, in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, a tide of emigration -one of the great folk wanderings of history-swept from Europe to America. 46) This movement, driven by powerful motivations, built a nation out of a wilderness and, by its nature, shaped the character and destiny of an uncharted continent.

  47) The United States is the product of two principal forces-the immigration of European peoples with their varied ideas, customs, and national characteristics and the impact of a new country which modified these traits. Of necessity, colonial America was a projection of Europe. Across the Atlantic came successive groups of Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, Scots, Irishmen, Dutchmen, Swedes, and many others who attempted to transplant their habits and traditions to the new world. 48) But the force of geographic conditions peculiar to America, the interplay of the varied national groups upon one another, and the sheer difficulty of maintaining old-world ways in a raw, new continent caused significant changes. These changes were gradual and at first scarcely visible. But the result was a new social pattern which, although it resembled European society in many ways, had a character that was distinctly American.

  49)The first shiploads of immigrants bound for the territory which is now the United States crossed the Atlantic more than a hundred years after the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorations of North America. In the meantime, thriving Spanish colonies had been established in Mexico, the West Indies, and South America. These travelers to North America came in small, unmercifully overcrowded craft. During their six- to twelve-week voyage, they subsisted on meager rations. Many of the ships were lost in storms, many passengers died of disease, and infants rarely survived the journey. Sometimes tempests blew the vessels far off their course, and often calm brought interminable delay.

  To the anxious travelers the sight of the American shore brought almost inexpressible relief. Said one chronicler, "The air at twelve leagues' distance smelt as sweet as a new-blown garden." The colonists' first glimpse of the new land was a vista of dense woods. 50) The virgin forest with its richness and variety of trees was a real treasure-house which extended from Maine all the way down to Georgia. Here was abundant fuel and lumber. Here was the raw material of houses and furniture, ships and potash, dyes and naval stores.

  文章來源于An Outline of American History,《美國歷史綱要》,是一本歷史學方面的專著。

  46 We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.

  【句子結構】分號連接的兩個并列句,第一個并列句主干是 We don’t have to learn ,how引導賓語從句做learn的賓語,第二個并列句主干是it is built into us in the same way,that引導定語從句修飾先行詞way,that定語從句中主干是our bodies know,how引導賓語從句做know的賓語。

  【參考譯文】我們無需刻意去了解學習才能讓心理更健康,它正如我們的身體知道怎樣讓傷口愈合和修復骨折一樣,是根植于我們體內的/是我們與生俱來的能力。

  47 Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.

  【句子結構】分號連接的兩個并列句, 第一個并列句主謂結構,很簡單,第二個并列句中,like the sun behind a cloud是狀語,but 連接兩個并列分句,包括短語be hidden from 和be capable of. 涉及被動語態的翻譯方法。

  【參考譯文】我們的心理健康并不是真的消失不見,就像云朵背后的太陽,它也許暫時被遮擋,但是它也可以在瞬間重煥光芒。

  48 Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.

  【句子結構】句子主干是 Mental health allows us to view others, 三個并列with 引導的介詞短語做狀語,前兩個with引導的狀語中各包含一個if引導的條件狀從,最后一個with狀語中包含一個no matter 引導的讓步狀語。

  【參考譯文】 心理健康使我們在他人遇到麻煩時給予同情,在他人痛苦時心存善意,而且無論對方是誰都會給予無條件的關愛。

  49、【參考譯文】盡管擁有健康的心智是我們生活中的萬能藥,但它并不稀奇,你會發現在你難以做決定時,它一直在指引著你。

  【解析】本題有一個由although引導的讓步狀語從句,as引導的時間狀語從句,以及that引導的賓語從句構成。此處“mental health”若是翻譯成心理健康與下文連接,則不符合中文表達習慣,又因mental本身與智力相關,所以將其翻譯成“健康的心智”;此外“perfectly ordinary”可以正譯,譯為“非常普遍”,本譯文采取正話反說的方式,譯為“并不稀奇”。再次,“difficult decisions”若翻譯為困難的決定,不符合中文的表達方式,所以將decision,名詞譯為動詞“做決定”。

  50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us slow down to the moment and live life happily.

  【參考譯文】你會慢慢理解到,健康的心智會一直存在,堅信這一點,此刻我們就可以放慢生活節奏,快樂的生活。

  【解析】本題由as 引導的時間狀語從句,that引導的賓語從句組成,并且考察代詞“it”。“see”在此時了解而不是看到的意思,意思和knowing一致,隨意合并翻譯;“available”本意“可得到的”,句中意譯為“一直存在”。

  Section III Writing

  Part A

  Directions:

  Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

  You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.

  Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.

  Do not write the address .(10 points)

  【范文】

  Notice

  August 20, 2015

  To ensure students from overseas to be acquainted with the service of library in Beijing University, we write this notice to inform you of some relevant information about our library.

  To begin with, our library provides a large amount of books and materials covering not only most majors and subjects, but also many extra-curricular reading materials, thus satisfying all your reading requirements. Furthermore, the library opens during the week time, each day from 9:00am to10:00pm. Last but not least, only students enrolled in this university and with a special Library Card are allowed to enter our library.

  Anyone interested in studying or reading in our library should sign up before August 31, and the Library Card will be issued within a week.

  Library of Beijing University

  【解析】

  今年英語(一)的小作文,再一次考查到了通知。在英語(一)的考試中,通知已經考查過1次。例如2010年英語(一)就考查過代表研究生會寫一篇為國際會議招募志愿者的通知,而且2015年英語(二)考查的也是招募志愿者的通知。

  同是以圖書館為寫作背景,在2007年英語(一)的建議信中也已經考查過,所以相關表達在課堂上都已經涉及過。因此,只要根據2010年通知的格式,再結合2007年建議信的相關內容,就可以很輕松的寫出2016年的小作文。這就提醒我們2017屆的同學們要高度重視歷年真題,因為考過的話題或是應用性短文會反復考查。

  接下來,我們來詳細解讀今年的小作文。首先看一下題目要求:

  Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.

  小作文,即A節作文的評分側重點在于:1. 格式和語域的恰當性;2. 信息點的覆蓋面;3. 內容的組織;4. 語言的準確性。

  在這里,我們主要從格式和內容兩方面來解析此文。首先,從格式上來說,通知的格式包括四大部分:

  1、標題,通知要求必須有標題,可以直接用Notice做標題,注意首字母大寫,且標題要居中;

  2、時間,通知的時間要求在標題下方第二行,按照日月年的順序來寫,注意月與年之間要有逗號,且時間要靠右對齊;

  3、正文,通知正文要求首段縮進四個字符,不要求一定分段,但為了內容層次清晰,建議分三段為好。

  4、落款,落款即發布通知的單位,此處需要特別注意,根據題目的要求,考生是代表圖書館寫的通知,所以落款應該是某某圖書館,而非Li Ming本人。

  另外,從內容上來看,作為一名圖書管理員,要向學生介紹學校的圖書館,其實可以介紹的內容還有很多,比如圖書館的藏書、圖書館的開放時間、入館要求等等。所以內容部分對大家來說應該也不是難事,具體內容可以參考如上范文。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should

  1. describe the pictures briefly,

  2. interpret its intended meaning, and

  3. give your comments.

  You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)

  

 

  【范文】

  What is symbolically depicted in the caricatures carries sharp contrast implications. In the first drawing, a father is watching a football match on the sofa. Meanwhile, he is supervising his son to finish homework. It is obvious that his son wears frowned expression on his face. On the contrary, the second portrayal depicts a father is working earnestly besides his son, and his son is doing his own assignment without prodding.

  The drawer demonstrates that utmost significance should be attached to the phenomenon that setting proper examples has exerted great impact on the growth of the younger generation in China. Previously, it is widely acknowledged that parents are under obligation to help their kids form a set of appropriate values about the world and the life, which carries overwhelmingly precious connotation to the sound development on the younger generation. Simultaneously, there is no denying that the most rational method for adults to educate adolescents is to set them good examples rather than making perpetual requirements, which is less persuasive compared with the actions.

  Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implication from the drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten parents to be more advisable in educating their children. On the other hand, parents should attach more emphasis on setting excellent models for their juveniles. Only in this way, can we effectively ensure a promising prospect for adolescents.

  炎熱的天氣說來就來,就像考研復習的時間說溜走就溜走,不給考研學生充分準備的時間。轉眼就要迎來暑期,而對于在校的考研學生來說,這是整個考研復習階段難得的可以全天候全身心投入考研的階段,也是成績提升的關鍵階段。在這個階段到來之前選定自己的目標院校和專業會對整體復習起到很大的提升作用,同時提前制定好暑期復習規劃也能更好的幫助小伙伴實現提高成績的目的。面對在家、在校、網課、實地不同暑期復習選擇,改如何進行抉擇呢?跨小考特意為大家帶來分析文章《自學、報班哪種方式更適合考研生的暑期復習》

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